On Tuesday, Arizona voters were given the chance to vote on Proposition 107, which prohibits "the state from giving preferential treatment to or discriminating against any person or group on the basis of race, sex, colour, ethnicity or national origin". The measure passed with 59% of the vote, effectively banning affirmative action in the state.
Proposition 107 supporters, including Republican representative Steve Montenegro, who sponsored the measure to amend the Arizona constitution, have invoked civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr's dream that "little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character" and twisted that into a plea for "colour-blindness" rather than equality. Affirmative action, which began in the United States in 1965, is a policy designed to mitigate historic and present discrimination and institutional racism and sexism.
A 1996 essay in the Journal for Social Issues noted that in a society where whiteness remains the baseline and the preference – consciously or subconsciously – people of colour are at a disadvantage:
"All else being equal, colour-blind seniority systems tend to protect white workers against job layoffs, because senior employees are usually white (Ezorsky, 1991). Likewise, colour-blind college admissions favour white students because of their earlier educational advantages. Unless preexisting inequities are corrected or otherwise taken into account, colour-blind policies do not correct racial injustice – they reinforce it."
Affirmative action offers a way to counteract that racial bias – and the gender bias – that remain pervasive in our society. The journal article offers a statistic from the US labour department, revealing that affirmative action has helped 5 million minority members, as well as 6 million white and minority women, move up in the workforce.
Of course, there are those who would claim that the forces that may have inhibited the success of women and minorities in the past have been erased, especially since, thanks to Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, we've achieved a post-racial and post-feminist society. (Please note: tongue firmly in cheek, here.)
It astonishes me how short our collective memory is. Institutional racism is not a thing of the distant past, some evil that died with the Civil war. I am 40 years old. My paternal grandparents were not allowed to vote until they were well into their 60s, when the Civil Rights Act was signed. My father was raised in the Jim Crow south, attending separate and unequal schools, riding in the back of the bus, and never entering through a white neighbour's front door. My mother's choices, as a young woman in the 1960s, were limited both by the biases against black people, but also against women.
For generations upon generations, people of colour and women were barred from positions of power, from voting for their own government representation, and from taking part equally in opportunities for growth and success. That marginalisation made it more difficult to lay the foundation for the achievement of future generations. The idea that we have made up for hundreds of years of oppression in barely 50 years is ludicrous.
And oppression is not merely history. Bias and inequality live and "the playing field" is not equal. Women still earn 77 cents to the male dollar. Extract from that black and Latina women and the figure drops to 68 cents and 58 cents respectively. Research has shown that people with names traditionally thought of as African American, or who have other racially identifying information on their resumes, receive fewer responses to job queries. According to the Journal on Social Issues article:
"[W]ithout affirmative action, the percentage of black students at many selective schools would drop to only 2% of the student body (Bowen & Bok, 1998). This would effectively choke off black access to top universities and severely restrict progress toward racial equality."
These figures may seem startling to some – according to the New York Times, "maybe because of the popular perception that affirmative action still confers significant advantages [my emphasis] to black job candidates, a perception that is not borne out in studies. Moreover, statistics show even college-educated blacks suffering disproportionately in this jobless environment compared with whites."
It is a privilege to believe in a level playing field, a privilege to believe in post-racialism and post-feminism. Women and people of colour cannot afford to be so naive. Arizona, a state that voted no to a Martin Luther King holiday and wants brown folks to routinely have their "papers" checked, just made it a little harder for marginalised people to get along. In a disingenuous effort to guard against discrimination, Republican lawmakers have led Arizonans actually to enshrine inequality in the state's governing document.
ideas about Essay Writing on Pinterest Essay Writing Help Essay Writing Tips and Essay Tips.
Year Rs Topics For Persuasive Essays Essay for you wikiHow mullaperiyar dam issue essay for gre kamp associates mullaperiyar dam issue essay for gre kamp associates.
Better essays and techniques overview .
College Essays College Application Essays Persuasive Essay Fun Essay Capital Punishment Persuasive Essays Free Essay On SlidePlayer.
Essay on the battle of hastings year I don t know about you but I was Essay on the battle of hastings year I don t know about you but I was.
Argumentative Persuasive Essay ppt download Design Synthesis.
Persuasive Essay and Speech Topics Ereading Worksheets INPIEQ.
persuasiveessayrubric page persuasiveessayrubric page persuasiveessayrubric page Ascend Surgical.
Persuasive essay about endangered animals Homework Academic Service Ereading Worksheets.
Scholarship Essay Template Free Word PDF Documents Download Pinterest.
Teach Children Well Collaborative Learning Design Persuasive Essay Design Synthesis .
Image titled Write a Persuasive Essay Step Design Synthesis.
persuasive devices list Google Search persuasive devices persuasiveessayrubric page persuasiveessayrubric page persuasiveessayrubric page .
Persuasive writing techniques.
Features Of Persuasive Writing.
Persuasive Writing Graphic Organizers Level intermediate Age Downloads .
AppTiled com Unique App Finder Engine Latest Reviews Market News.
Lokal po o ony w zaciszu Tel past life regression bad experience essay persuasive essay scaffold We provide excellent essay writing service The SlideShare.
Year essay Design Synthesis Video example and Personal Narrative Essay Sample.
Writing Persuasive Essays Ereading Worksheets Ascend Surgical pers writing prompts for kids.
do my best persuasive essay Design Synthesis.
English teaching worksheets Persuasive writing.
The Art of Persuasive Writing ppt download Design Synthesis.
English Level Persuasive Essay reliable rubrics .
Essay Outline UDL Strategies medical marijuana persuasive essay Resume Template Essay Sample Free Essay Sample Free.
How to write a persuasive essay year .
do my best persuasive essay SlidePlayer Best ideas about Essay Structure on Pinterest Essay writing Top Essay Writing Literature review dissertation structure.
Persuasive Essay .
Capital punishment argumentative essay conclusion.
English Year Topics For Persuasive Essays image .
Year essay cell phones essay Persuasive essay on cell phones in school Persuasive Essay Persuasive essay on cell.
paragraph persuasive essay outline Norfolk FBI and Partners wikiHow persuasive letter template for students Persuasive Cover Letter .
Year essay CrossFit Bozeman Essay Persuasive Essay Samples For High School High School Essay All About Essay Example Galle Co.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay Mater Academy Lakes Middle Mrs Design Synthesis Persuasive writing year .
English Level Persuasive Essay reliable rubrics What Could I Write My Persuasive Essay About at esssays eu Write My Persuasive Essay Millicent.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay with Free Sample Essay OzEssay .
Persuasive essay generator INPIEQ.
good lt a href quot beksanimports com persuasive essay examples top ways to obtain a.
worksheets year Google Search english Pinterest Search Design Synthesis.
Year essay INPIEQ good lt a href quot beksanimports com persuasive essay examples top ways to obtain a.
The Persuasive Essay Steps to Better Writing What is a persuasive Template net.
example of argumentative topic essays Year Dynamic Teaching Biro Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia UMS Year Dynamic Teaching Biro Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia UMS.
Persuasive Essentials Poster Perfect poster to remind students how to write a persuasive essay Text Types and Purposes Write opinion pieces on topics or Pinterest.
English Level Persuasive Essay reliable rubrics This is an image of a young woman writing an essay She is in a.
persuasive essay template elementary Marked by Teachers.
Persuasive Essay Count down class days until due date ppt .
Best ideas about Persuasive Essays on Pinterest Art essay topic for persuasive essay ASB Th ringen Writing Service For You Topics Narrative Essays Grade English.
junior essay writing using t e e l and persuasive techniques to Design Synthesis.
persuasive devices list Google Search persuasive devices Pinterest.
Structure of a persuasive essay Persuasive Techniques Examples.
What to write my persuasive essay about Spectrum Tuition.
Write Now year homework sheets nz acquired The Creativity Core SlidePlayer.
How to write a conclusion persuasive essay Resume Template Essay Sample Free Essay Sample Free.
Shortest persuasive speech AppTiled com Unique App Finder Engine Latest Reviews Market News TH GRADE PERSUASIVE ESSAY.
This Year Old s Essay Is Brilliant Books Make my research paper fast Esy es Text INPIEQ.
English Level Persuasive Essay reliable rubrics Argumentative Essay Definition Format Examples.
opinion article examples for kids Persuasive Essay Writing Studentnis org.
Best ideas about Persuasive Essays on Pinterest Art essay Essay Persuasive Essay Samples For High School High School Essay All About Essay Example Galle Co.
Image titled Begin a Persuasive Essay Step .
persuasive essay outline format Pinterest All About Essay Example Galle Co persuasive essay outline format Pinterest All About Essay Example Galle Co.
persuasive essay worksheets.
Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started Essay Writing Diamond Geo Engineering Services Lesson minutes.
writing persuasive essay outline.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay and Use Several Sources Reasons to Write How to Write a Persuasive Essay and Use Several Sources Reasons to Write AppTiled com Unique App Finder Engine Latest Reviews Market News.
Essay writing structure year SlidePlayer Image titled Write a Persuasive Essay Step .
Writing A Persuasive Text JVillis YouTube I created this video for my Year.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay with Free Sample Essay Pinterest Topics .
Persuasive essay about zoos Spectrum Tuition.
The Art of Persuasive Writing ppt download Coexpress Persuasive Writing Introduction for Year Pinterest Persuasive Writing Introduction for Year Pinterest.
How to write a conclusion persuasive essay.
English teaching worksheets Persuasive writing Design Synthesis.
This Year Old s Essay Is Brilliant Books Make my research paper fast Esy es Text Carpinteria Rural Friedrich.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay and Use Several Sources Reasons to Write How to Write a Persuasive Essay and Use Several Sources Reasons to Write.
A really good persuasive essay ThoughtCo.
write top persuasive essay online.
PERSUASIVE SPEECH Public Speech pages exercises Level elementary Age Downloads .
Persuasive Writing Topics Look Deep into History with Ozessay Pinterest Persuasive text walk to school Level elementary Age Downloads .
Top hot topics for argumentative essays Pinterest How to write a persuasive essay year .
Essay topics year INPIEQ writing a good argumentative essay faw my ip mehd image of what are some good argumentative.
sample persuasive essay apa format persuasive essay example Source If you ask yourself Who can write Pinterest.
Peel essay writing essay speech format karnaddrives Free Essays and Papers essay speech format karnaddrives Free Essays and Papers.
opinion article examples for kids Persuasive Essay Writing .
Five Paragraph Persuasive Essay Rubric th Homework for you way to start an essay Best way to start persuasive essay Free Essays and Papers way.
worksheets year Google Search.
Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started Essay Writing Halley Metcalfe.
Narrative Essay Complete Unit Teachers Pay Teachers Quality Management Narrative Essay Complete Unit Teachers Pay Teachers Quality Management Pinterest.
The Persuasive Essay wikiHow.
Persuasive Essays Examples And Samples Essay picture Stuff SlidePlayer.
impromptu speech essay The Persuasive Essay.
English Level Persuasive Essay reliable rubrics reliable rubrics Image titled Write a Persuasive Essay Step .
Five Paragraph Persuasive Essay Rubric th Homework for you sample persuasive essay for th graders Essay on report writing Australia Cheap persuasive essay editor site.